The Last Time

It started with me, trying to answer a question posed by a classmate.

She asked something like, “Brodkin raises the question of whether it was the economic power of Jewish people or their ability to be adopted into whiteness because of their skin color that made it possible for Jews to become part of the middle-class in the post-World War II U.S. Do you think that Mexican immigrants will be able to become part of the U.S. middle-class if they gain enough capital?”

So, it might have started when we were assigned an article-length excerpt of Karen Brodkin’s How Jews Became White Folks.

Still, I think that it must have started when I said something in response. I said that because we live in a fundamentally white supremacist society, and because the middle class largely adheres to the values, beliefs, and norms passed on from the U.S. American elite, while there may be a Black middle class, Asian middle class, Hispanic middle class, etc., they will never be part of the U.S. upper class (en masse) because of the legacy of institutional racism.

I have a great appreciation for the way that what I said could be seen as extremist in many different contexts. I also did not think it was a finitely answerable question posed, so I thought that I had plenty of room to be wrong and right simultaneously.

I would also like to point out that what I said was a synthesis of several very similar arguments I’ve read over the years. [Specifically, I was calling on Patricia Hill-Collins’ past-in-present racism from Black Sexual Politics, William Julius Wilson and Richard P. Taub’s There Goes the Neighborhood, David Roediger’s Working Towards Whiteness, Eduardo Bonilla-Silva’s Racism Without Racists, the excerpt we were actually reading by Brodkin, and every Tim Wise book I have ever read.] Within the context of a sociology class (which we were in), I did not think that what I was saying was radical or controversial (simply, it is not a new argument), but I hedged because it is what I was socialized to do as a young, Korean-American woman.


I honestly cannot remember most of what followed. This seems to be the strongest testament, the best proof, of why I now feel panicked, insecure, and as if I were back in all those classrooms being told by all those white students that my ideas about race are wrong. Except this time it was the instructor.

I do remember that the instructor, who I had felt some fondness for, completely and totally disagreed with me in a very bizarre way. I remember that she seemed to get hostile and spoke at length to me about why I was wrong. She told me that I could not say there was no Black middle class. (Something I did not say.) She then asked me to explain what I meant when I said that. I did not know what was happening, but I argued that U.S. Black people (en masse) could not become part of the U.S. hegemonic middle class, because the hegemonic middle class acts as a conduit for the U.S. white elite’s values, norms, and beliefs, which, historically, are exclusionary. [I know that I have read this argument in a few places, but I can’t remember exactly where. I tend to think that the best argument for this type of dynamic can be found in Foucault, specifically in the first volume of The History of Sexuality. I also have various personal anecdotes that fall in line with this reasoning, but sociology is generally not about the idiosyncratic so I did not include them. Plus, when face-to-face you have to earn my trust to hear my personal experiences. It now seems telling that trust felt lacking.]

The instructor seemed to get upset, although I admit that especially in times of grave confusion, I can tend towards unreliability in reproducing events. She went off on Marx’s definition of class [in case you’re interested: consisting of wealth, occupational status, and education according to this instructor] and said that was not what I was saying, and, over the course of minutes, told me that my definition of class was wrong to include culture and that I should have only stuck to economics. She also told me that many theorists would disagree with me. I feel that this is undeniable, at least partly because of human diversity and the wonderful way that diversity can start a conversation where there was none in the academy as in life.

What I did not understand, what I still do not understand, is, if class is solely defined by economics, what does the “socio-“ prefix in “socioeconomic status” mean? I said that I thought we were splitting hairs. I really did think that, because what is “occupational status” and “education” if not markers of indoctrination?

This was not the right thing to say.

The instructor explained Marxist and neo-Marxist class structure, then seemed to void it by saying anyone who does own the means of production is a member of the working class. She seemed to get upset at the class that we had not read Max Weber (even though she had not assigned it and was well aware that I was the only sociology major in the class). She then said that Weber’s class structure was not as good as Marx’s and attempted to playfully (?) chastise me for insinuating that there were no Black Republicans. She then seemed to get upset at me again, and spoke at length to me about how Black people are not different from white people and it was reductive (my word, again, the fault of bizarre memory loss on my part) to say that members of the Black middle class would have more in common with members of the Black working class than members of the white middle class. For good measure she told me that many theorists would disagree with me again. She then told the class that I was “fuming” and asked me to explain myself more.

This is the absolute truth: I was not angry. I was shocked and trying not to cry. Someone I thought I could trust had just spoken to me for quite a while in a fairly nonsensical way, which culminated in the insinuation that I believed that racial/ethnic minorities are so different from one another as to be biological. To be completely clear, I believe that race and ethnicity are social constructs, meaning there are no real differences between these groups. Rather, these differences are constructed through complex displays, ideology, and social structure.


In this last semester, I have been dismissed, invalidated, for the last time in this university. This is the first time it’s been the instructor who was invalidating what I said, though. This is the first time my argument has been twisted so that it is not even something that would come from me, but then forced back upon me.


Now that I think of it, I feel that this all must have started long ago. My bones, my body, a gift from my Korean biological mother in a country across the sea, plopped down in this messy legacy of men and women long dead.


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e lewis

I'm a bibliophile with a love of social justice theory living in the Pacific North West trying to figure life out.

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